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Amblyopia

Amblyopia (sometimes called "lazy eye"), is a condition in which the brain cannot make normal use of the visual information coming from one or both of the eyes. Usually this is the result of a competition between the eyes at the level of the visual areas of the brain. For example, in strabismus, the brain cannot use the two eyes together, and if it is always the same eye that is suppressed, amblyopia can develop. Another common cause of amblyopia is a difference in refractive error between the two eyes, which leads to a strong brain preference for the eye with the better focus. Different types of refractive error that can be associated to amblyopia include myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and anisometropia.

Diagnosis
Amblyopia is diagnosed based on vision measurements (or eye preference, in children who are too young to do vision measurements) and a complete eye examination, including dilating eye drops for examination of eye anatomy and measurement of refractive error.

Treatment
Amblyopia treatment is best initiated at an early age, although it can be attempted even in some older children. Depending on the type of amblyopia, treatment may include eyeglasses, drops or patching the eye (known as occlusion therapy). A prescription eye drop called Atropine may be used to blur the sound eye in amblyopia, a treatment referred to as pharmacological penalization